Friday, December 16, 2011

Hanukka (Chanukah) or the Festival of Lights


The other day you asked me to write about this holiday and I confessed that I have only a vague knowledge about Jewish holidays. I meant authoritative knowledge. But in the meantime, a friend sent me the attached, which I read with interest and thought you might be interested too.

Jasha levi


A Secular, Cultural, Humanistic
Celebration of Chanukah
by Rabbi Peter H. Schweitzer
45 East 33rd Street • New York, NY 10016 • 212-213-1002 • 212-213-3855 (fax) •

Happy Chanukah!
Or however you choose to spell it.
Or celebrate it.
By lighting candles.
Reading about the history.
Finding contemporary meaning.
Singing familiar melodies.
Exchanging gifts.
Devouring latkes.
Spinning dreidls.
This booklet gives you the ingredients
you need to create your own celebration.
You can repeat old traditions.
You can invent new ones.
You can choose your own way.
Best wishes for joyous holiday.
And Happy Hanuka.
Or however you spell it.


It may be hard to believe, considering the fanfare it gets, but Chanukah is
technically a minor festival. In fact, it is the only Jewish holiday without any
historical basis in the Bible and is barely mentioned in the Talmud. Compared to
Shabbat, Passover and the High Holidays, the Chanukah lights barely flicker.

Historically, the story of the oil burning eight days had a quaint appeal, but in an
age of science and skepticism, miracle tales have fallen into disrepute and lost their lustre. However, with the rise of political nationalism in the 19th century, the military message of the holiday gained popularity. This theme captivated the early Zionists as well. Pioneers reclaiming the land and soldiers of the early Haganah were naturally regarded as Maccabean descendants. Then, faced with the tempting tinsel and bright lights of Christmas, American Jews asserted themselves with Maccabean vigor and elevated Chanukah to a celebration of major import. If
there’s any doubt about this, ask any child.

So perhaps the real miracle of Chanukah is its own rebirth and renewal. What
might have become a historic footnote was given new life. Yet, at the same time,
while Chanukah celebrates the Maccabean refusal to succumb to the lure of
Hellenism, Chanukah Reborn in the 20th century is, paradoxically, saturated with
commercialism and materialism. It now is at risk of adopting the very notions that
it was meant to crush. Yet if we attempt to contain the excess that our children
especially have come to expect we equally risk their own Maccabean uprising.

What, then, can be the message of Chanukah for us today? Surely it is not about
resisting modern culture, which we embrace rather whole-heartedly. Nor can it be
about asserting our religious identity, which we don’t feel is endangered. And
certainly it is not about demonstrating military prowess, which isn’t a particularly
popular position these days.

But Chanukah is about giving warmth to one another through the cold winter. It is
about bringing back the sun as the short days of the year grow longer again. It is
about the victory of hope over despair, of joy over sorrow. In the end, Chanukah is
all about light, which is what the holiday was all about in the very beginning.


Let us celebrate Chanukah,
a week of brightness, a week of joy.
A week of freedom,
a week of celebration.
Welcome Chanukah,
a time for memory, a time for hope.

Maccabees of old did rise,
To defy the wicked king.
They stood tall and bravely fought
Soon they heard freedom’s ring.
They brought a message cheering,
That the time was nearing,
Which will see, all people free,
Tyrants disappearing.
Which will see, all people free,
Tyrants disappearing.

Oh Chanukah, Oh Chanukah come light the menorah.
Let's have a party, we'll all dance the hora.
Gather round the table, we’ll give you a treat.
Dreidels to play with and latkes to eat.
And while we are playing, the candles are burning low,
One for each night they shed a sweet light
To remind us of days long ago.
One for each night they shed a sweet light
To remind us of days long ago.
Oy, khanike, oy, khanike a yontef a sheyner.
A lustiker, a freylekher, nito nokh a zoyner!
Ale nakht in dreydl shpiln mir, frishe heyse latkes esn mir.
Geshvinder, tsindt, kinder, di khanike-lihktelekh on.
Zol yeder bazunder, bazingen dem vunder
Un tantsn freylekh in kon.
Zol yeder bazunder, bazingen dem vunder
Un tantsn freylekh in kon.

On Chanukah we commemorate the victory of light over darkness
and the right of religious freedom and freedom of expression.
On Chanukah we treasure the principles and ideas and values
whose fruits nourish us and sustain us in life.
On Chanukah we cherish the light of hope
that leads us to a vision of a better world.
On Chanukah we appreciate our happiness and good fortune,
that are all the greater when they are shared.
On Chanukah we proclaim the day a delight, we rejoice in its joy,
we treasure our tranquility, and we celebrate our freedom.
You may continue with the service
and learn more about the history of Chanukah
or go directly to Candlelighting.

Long ago, in the land of ancient Israel, as winter approached and the days grew
shorter, our ancestors believed that the sun was dying and that the world would
soon be plunged into the death of darkness.
To prevent this terrifying event, fires were kindled on the hilltops to coax the sun
back to life with a sympathetic flame.
At the December solstice, a turning point always occurred. The sun seemed to
renew itself through the increasing light of day, and people rejoiced in the
rejuvenation of the sun and in the cycle of nature.
This celebration became a week-long festival of revelry, suspense, and burning of
lamps in anticipation of the sun’s annual renewal. The celebration was called
Nayrot, which means “lights,” and it exalted the triumph of light and life over
despair and darkness.

Winter Spring Summer Fall
Lyrics by Rabbi Peter Schweitzer
Music by Mickie and Abe Mandel
A time for winter, a time for spring
A time to celebrate, a time to sing
A time for summer, a time for fall
A time to enjoy life one and all
A time to enjoy life one and all
Over and over, round and round
Seasons fade into seasons found
Over and over, round and round
The cycles of nature safe and sound
The cycles of nature safe and sound
Again and again, it is nature’s way
A time for planting brings time to play
A time to sow and a time to reap
A time to awaken, a time to sleep
A time to awaken, a time to sleep
It started long before we were here
On and on it goes, year by year
It matters not the reason why
We treasure each gift of earth and sky
We treasure each gift of earth and sky
A time for winter, a time for spring
A time to celebrate, a time to sing
A time for summer, a time for fall
A time to enjoy life one and all
A time to enjoy life one and all

Over two thousand years ago, in the third century before the Common Era, the
Greek king, Alexander of Macedon, who became known as Alexander the Great,
ruled over the lands of the ancient Middle East.
Some Jews were attracted to Greek culture, but others rejected it and felt it could
weaken Jewish values. After Alexander the Great died, the Syrian tyrant, Antiochus
Epiphanes, came to power. He prohibited the practice of the Jewish religion and
wanted everyone in his realm to become Greek.

Even if some Jews were attracted to Greek culture, this rejection of Judaism was
intolerable. Jews rose up in rebellion. Let by Mattathias and his son, Judah
Maccabee (“the hammer”), the Jews fought off the Greeks and forced them to
withdraw from Jerusalem.
Tragically, once the Maccabees were victorious they allowed themselves to be
corrupted by power and became tyrants themselves. And, ironically, their
immediate descendants adopted the very Hellenistic culture that the original
Maccabees had rejected. Of course, times change and people change with the times
and there’s no way to have predicted this twist of events.

Who can retell the things that befell us?
Who can count them?
In every age a hero or sage
comes to our aid.
Hark! At this time of year
in days of yore.
Maccabees the Temple did restore
And today our people, as we dreamed
Survived the tyrant, our nation
was redeemed.
Mee y’ma-lel, g’voo-rote yis-ra-el
o-tahn mee yim-ney?
Hen b’chol dor ya-koom ha-gee-bor
go-el ha-ahm.
Shma! Ba-ya-meem ha-hem
baz-mahn ha-zeh.
Ma-ka-bee mo-shee-ah oo-fo-dey
Oo-yo-mey-nu kol ahm yis-ra-el
Yeet-ah-ched ya-koom v’yee-ga-el.

The Maccabees recaptured the Temple in the Fall around October but they waited
until the winter solstice festival of Nayrot to rededicate the Temple. Their
celebration went on for eight days, to make up for the fall holiday of Sukkot, which
they had been unable to observe. The new holiday was called Hanukah, or
“dedication” and eventually the original connection to the winter solstice was

The rabbis who lived several hundred years later were not so comfortable with this
story about the Maccabean victory. In fact, it made them nervous. They feared that
it might inspire others to rise up against the Roman oppressors of their own day
who were all-powerful. They feared that this would only lead to defeat of the Jews.
So the rabbis downplayed the Maccabee’s victory by inventing the legend of the tiny
vial of holy oil that miraculously lasted for eight days, the time needed to prepare a fresh supply of oil for the lamp in the Temple. The focus shifted away from a
human story of rebellion to one of divine intervention and rescue.

Today, we once again acknowledge the original connection of Hanuka to Nayrot and
we reclaim the real story of Hanuka that celebrates the Maccabees’ courage to
defend their religious and personal identity. Like them, we take responsibility for
our own lives and declare that we can shape our Jewish identity in ways that will be
meaningful for us today. In fact, this service, with its innovative readings and
contemporary Humanistic candle blessings, is an example of how we can link
ourselves to our heritage as well as articulate our modern understanding of this

Some call it a hanukkiah, a modern Hebrew word invented by Eliezer Ben Yehuda in
the late 19th century. But most still call it a menorah, based on the classical Hebrew word for candelabrum. Which goes to show that it is hard to get rid of old practices or terms not to mention that Jews don’t agree about everything.

In fact, from the very beginning, the Talmud records a debate on how to kindle the
Chanukah lights. One side advocated using eight lights the first night, seven the
next and so forth, counting down. They said that this made sense since the oil
would gradually be running out each day.

The other side, which won the argument, preferred starting with one light and going
up from there. They said that we should increase the brightness each day rather
than diminish it to really celebrate the joy of the holiday.

Others debate whether to light from right to left or left to right. Or whether to light the newest candle first and then reverse the order. Perhaps none of this matters but what may be important is carrying on these debates from generation to
generation. That is part of our Jewish tradition!
And finally, the Shammes candle, or lighter candle, stands taller than the rest. It
teaches us that from one light, we can make a lot of light. From one person with
hope, we can make lot of hope. Let us all be that one candle which helps to light all
the rest.

for a Secular Humanistic Chanukah Celebration
Song to the traditional melody for lighting the candles
Ba-ruch ha-or ba-oh-lahm
Ba-ruch ha-or ba-ah-dahm
Come gather round and light the menorah
As we say, “L’had-leek ner shel cha-nu-kah.”
Ba-ruch ha-or ba-oh-lahm
Ba-ruch ha-or ba-ah-dahm
We celebrate freedom won a long time ago
Ba-ya-meem ha-hem baz-mahn ha-zeh.
Ba-ruch ha-or ba-oh-lahm
Ba-ruch ha-or ba-ah-dahm
We light these candles in our home tonight
and we hope
that in the world
light will shine for all.
Light the Menorah

The first light is
the light of REASON.
It is the light of reason that teaches us
to see the difference between right and wrong.
The second light is
the light of SELF-ESTEEM.
It is the light of self- esteem that inspires us
to believe in ourselves.
The third light is
the light of COURAGE.
It is the light of courage that gives us
the strength to stand up for our beliefs.
The fourth light is
the light of FREEDOM.
It is the light of freedom that reminds us
to take responsibility for our own lives.
The fifth light is
the light of LOVE.
It is the light of love that enables us
to care for those in need.
The sixth light is
the light of Loyalty.
It is the light of loyalty that helps us keep
our promises to those who depend on us.
The seventh light is the
light of GENEROSITY.
It is the light of generosity that encourages us
to give even when we do not receive.
The eighth light is
the light of HOPE.
It is the light of hope that leads us
to a vision of a better world.

To the melody of “Maoz Tsur”
Jewish heroes, let our song
Praise our saving power
Though amidst the raging foe
We raised our sheltering tower
Furious they assailed us,
But our arms availed us
And our fists broke their swords,
Our own strength prevailed us.
And our fists broke their swords,
Our own strength prevailed us.
Children of the human race
Whether free or fettered,
Wake the echoes of your songs
Where you may be scattered
Yours the message cheering
That the time is nearing
Which will see all people free
Tyrants disappearing.
Which will see all people free
Tyrants disappearing.

A Ladino Folk Song
Hanukkah Linda, ‘sta aqui
Ocho candelos para mi (2x)
AHI!! Un candelico, Dos candelicos
Tres candelicos, Quatro candelicos
Sinju candelicos, Sez candelicos
Siete candelicos, Ocho canelos para mi
Muchas fiestas por fazer
Con allegrias y plazer (2x)
Los pastelicos vu comer
Con almendricas y la miel (2x)
A pretty candle is here
Eight candles for me
One candle, two candles, etc.
We eat pastries with almonds and honey

by Peter Yarrow
Light one candle for the Maccabee children.
Give thanks that their light didn’t die.
Light one candle for the pain they endured,
when their right to exist was denied.
Light one candle for the terrible sacrifice
justice and freedom demand.
Light one candle for the wisdom to know
when the peacemaker’s time is at hand.
Don’t let the light go out
It’s lasted for so many years.
Don’t let the light go out
Let is shine through our love
and our tears
Light one candle for the strength that we need
to never become our own foe.
Light one candle for those who are suffering
the pain we learned so long ago.
Light one candle for all we believe in,
let anger not tear us apart.
Light one candle to bind us together
with peace as the song in our heart.
What is the memory that’s valued so highly
that we keep alive in that flame?
What’s the commitment to those who have died
when we cry out, “They’ve not died in vain.”
We have come this far always believing
that justice will somehow prevail.
This is the burden and this the promise
and this is why we will not fail
Don’t let the light go out (3x)

Some call it a sevivon, preferring the Hebrew term. However, most of us stick to
dreidl, the Yiddish word. But on this everyone agrees: the familiar Chanukah
spinning top had nothing to do originally with Chanukah. It was an ancient
gambling toy familiar to many cultures and was probably adapted from a German
top by Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews during the medieval period. Ironically,
while the Maccabbees fought cultural assimilation, the dreidl game is an excellent
example of the very thing they opposed. These days we welcome the exchange of
ideas that comes from living in an open society. But we still need to figure out
where the limits are to all that our culture offers us. The choices are abundant.
They are enough to “dreyen zihn undz der kop” – to make our heads spin around.
S’vee-von sov, sov, sov
Cha-nu-kah hoo chag tov
Cha-nu-kah hoo chag tov
S’vee-von sov, sov, sov
Chag seem-cha hoo la-ahm
Nes ga-dol ha-ya shahm
Nes ga-dol ha-ya shahm
Chag seem-cha hoo la-ahm
S’vee-von, turn and turn
While the lovely candles burn.
What a wondrous holiday
Watch us sing and dance and play
Tell the story full of cheer
A great event happened there
It’s a holiday of light
For eight days and eight nights.
I have a little dreidl
I made it out of clay.
And when it’s dry and ready,
then dreidl I shall play
Oh, dreidl, dreidl, dreidl
I made it out of clay,
Oh, dreidl, dreidl, dreidl
now dreidl I shall play.
It has a lovely body
with a leg so short and thin
And when it is all tired,
it drops and I shall win.
My dreidl’s always playful.
It loves to dance and spin.
A happy game of dreidl,
come play, now let’s begin.

The dreidl is marked with a Hebrew letter on each of its sides. These letters have a
double meaning. On the one hand, each stands for the four words in the Hebrew
phrase “Nes Gadol Hayah Sham”, or “A great miracle happened there.” They also
represent four Yiddish words that indicate actions to take in the dreidl game.
At the beginning of the game, each player gets a number of tokens, e.g. peanuts,
raisins, M&Ms, chocolate Chanukah gelt (coins), pennies. Each player puts in one
token to start. Some add an additional token each round or each time the pot is
empty. Then players take turns spinning the dreidl and act according to what letter
lies on top when the dreidl stops spinning. The game is over when one player has
all the tokens.

N Nun Nes (Miracle) Nisht or none -- Nothing happens.
G Gimel Gadol (Great) Ganz or all – Take the whole pot.
H Hay Hayah (Happened) Halb or half – Take half the pot.
W Shin Sham (There) Shtel or Put in – Add a token to the pot
Other dreidl games:
Try to flip a dreidl on its head and spin it upside down.
All spin dreidls at once and see whose dreidl spins the longest.

A Jewish holiday would not be a Jewish holiday without food. Chanukah is no
exception. Latkes, or potato pancakes, and sufganiyot, jelly-filled donuts that are
popular in Israel, are both connected to the holiday because they are fried in oil,
commemorating the legend of the oil of the menorah that seemed to burn forever.
But neither of these foods are original to Chanukah or even of Jewish origin. Latkes
could not have been composed of potatoes in ancient times because potatoes are a
New World food. They actually didn’t arrive in Europe from their native Peru until
the 1500s. The word, itself, is of Yiddish origin, and may reflect an Eastern
European origin. Interestingly, latke may come, in a circuitous way, from the word
elaion, which is Greek for olive oil. But Ashkenazic Jews traditionally fried their
latkes in schmaltz, or rendered goose or chicken fat, and are only now discovering
the health benefits of olive oil. The batter was also prepared by hand-grating the
potatoes, which has given way to the food processor. So there you have it:
continuity and change – all in a potato dish!

As for the sufganiyah, this delectable is derived from the Greek work sufgan, which
means “puffed and fried.” They originally consisted of two pieces of dough that
sandwiched some jam and were then deep-fried, with the jam oozing out during the
cooking process. Now they are made by deep-frying a ball of dough first and
injecting jelly in afterwards. The modernization process didn’t diminish their
popularity one bite and perhaps even improved it. We’re also told, according to a
legend, that the first sufganiyah was given to Adam and Eve as a way to console
them on their expulsion from Eden. We may question this original myth, but
there’s no disputing that a good jelly donut can be great comfort food!

There are dozens of recipes for latkes. Here’s a fairly classic version.
For the more adventurous, see
for an array of options.

Gourmet, December 2000
Makes 12 to 16 latkes
1 lb potatoes
1/2 cup finely chopped onion
1 large egg, lightly beaten
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 to 3/4 cup olive oil
Accompaniments: sour cream and applesauce
Preheat oven to 250°F.
Peel potatoes and coarsely grate by hand, transferring to a large bowl of cold water
as grated. Soak potatoes 1 to 2 minutes after last batch is added to water, then
drain well in a colander.
Spread grated potatoes and onion on a kitchen towel and roll up jelly-roll style.
Twist towel tightly to wring out as much liquid as possible. Transfer potato mixture
to a bowl and stir in egg and salt.
Heat 1/4 cup oil in a 12-inch nonstick skillet over moderately high heat until hot but
not smoking. Working in batches of 4 latkes, spoon 2 tablespoons potato mixture
per latke into skillet, spreading into 3-inch rounds with a fork. Reduce heat to
moderate and cook until undersides are browned, about 5 minutes. Turn latkes
over and cook until undersides are browned, about 5 minutes more. Transfer to
paper towels to drain and season with salt. Add more oil to skillet as needed. Keep
latkes warm on a wire rack set in a shallow baking pan in oven.
Cooks' notes:
•The starchier the potato the crisper the latke. Baking potatoes are the starchiest.
• Latkes may be made up to 8 hours ahead. Reheat on a rack set over a baking sheet
in a 350°F oven, about 5 minutes.
• Grating the potatoes, soaking them briefly in water, and then squeezing out the
liquid keeps the batter from turning brown too quickly.

SUFGANIYOT (Jelly Donuts)
based on Joan Nathan’s recipe in "The Jewish Holiday Kitchen"
Makes 30 – 35 donuts
2 tablespoons dry yeast
3-1/2 tablespoons sugar
3/4 cup lukewarm milk
2-1/2 cups all-purpose flour
2 egg yolks
Pinch of salt
Pinch of cinnamon
1-1/2 tablespoons softened margarine
Plum or strawberry preserves
Vegetable oil for deep-frying
Granulated sugar
Dissolve the yeast and 2 tablespoons sugar in the milk.
Sift the flour. Place it on a board and make a well in the center. Add the yeast
mixture, the egg yolks, salt, cinnamon, and the remaining sugar. Knead well. Add
the margarine and knead until the dough is elastic.
Cover and let rise 2 hours.
Sprinkle flour on the board. Roll the dough out thin. Cut out with a glass into
rounds about 2 inches in diameter. Cover and let rise 15 minutes more.
Pour 2 inches of oil into a heavy pot and heat to 375 degrees.
Drop the doughnuts in the oil, 4 - 5 at a time, turning when brown. Drain on paper
With a tiny spoon, take some jam and fill the sufganiyot. Insert the spoon in the top
of the doughnut, revolve it inside the doughnut, and remove it from the same hole
made on entering.
Roll in granulated sugar and serve. You can make larger sufganiyot if you like.
Whatever you decide, eat them immediately!

Chanuka Gelt, or money, in Yiddish, are the chocolate coins wrapped in gold or
silver foil that are a mainstay of the holiday. But their origins are steeped in
mystery and so they give rise to many interpretations.
One theory is that the coins are intended to recall the Maccabees’ minting of their
own money to mark their victory over the Syrians whose wealth they plundered.
Temple images, such as the menorah, were embossed on the coins as reminders of
their triumph.

According to others sources, it was customary at Chanukah to distribute coins to
the poor and to underpaid teachers so that they could partake in the holiday and
purchase the necessary oil and wicks for the menorah.

From this developed the practice in some families of giving a few coins to the
children. Not only were they a welcomed gift, but they were also used to teach them
to give a portion of their own money to others less fortunate then themselves.
We’re also told that in the Sephardic Jewish communities poor children would go
door-to-door during the holiday offering to protect Jewish homes from the Evil Eye
by burning special grasses in exchange for some coins.
But maybe it is all much simpler than all these theories and lessons. Perhaps, in the
spirit of apples and honey at Rosh Hashanah, the chocolate coins were given to
children to guarantee a positive association to the holiday. They certainly seem to

Whatever your explanation, enjoy!

The custom of Chanukah gift giving may be the most important feature of the
holiday even though it only dates to the 19th century. One would think, however,
that the Maccabees were fighting not for religious freedom but for the right to
exchange gifts freely, so cherished is this practice.

In principle, gift giving is a happy occasion, though often fraught with anxiety trying to figure out the right present. We may decry the commercialism and consumerism associated with the holiday, but this may also be regarded as a sign of our acceptance in the larger society.

However you look at it, holiday gift giving is clearly here to stay. But we have some
options on how to approach this annual ritual.
For some, the focus is primarily on the children. Gifts may be organized around
different themes. Here are some examples:

A gift of Chanukah: a child’s own menorah, a new dreidl
A gift of learning: books, a magazine subscription
A gift of warmth: socks, gloves, a sweater
A gift of family: a gift from a grandparent or other relative
A gift of culture: tickets for a movie or show, a recording of music
A gift of adventure: a plan for a special outing
A gift of choice: a gift that the child has requested
A gift of sharing: helping the child choose toys that s/he is ready to give away

This is also a time of year when people typically make decisions about which
charities they will support. Parents can have a conversation about these choices
with their children and involve them in the decisions. In this way, all can
participate in the gift of giving.

A Secular, Cultural, Humanistic Celebration of Chanukah
by Rabbi Peter H. Schweitzer,
The City Congregation for Humanistic Judaism, 2007
Thanks to Myrna Baron and Shirley Ranz for their suggestions, and to
Rabbi Adam Chalom for various ideas based on his guidebook,
particularly his thoughtful metaphor that the Shammes candle
represents each one of us as we spread light from one to another.
“The Festival of Lights, A Home Hanukkah Celebration,“
by Rabbi Adam Chalom, Congregation Kol Hadash
Humanistic Chanuka Blessings
1st and 3rd Blessing by Rabbi Peter Schweitzer
2nd Blessing by Rabbi Daniel Friedman
“The Eight Lights of Chanukah”
by Marilyn Rowens, Humanistic Judaism, Winter 1979
Latke Recipe
Sufaganiyot Recipe
45 East 33rd Street • New York, NY 10016 • 212-213-1002 • 212-213-3855 (fax) •

I want to thank Jasha from my Linkedin group who got this from his publicist
Phyllis Spiegel. I also want to thank all the people who contributed to this

Have a wonderful Hanukkah.

Patricia A. Guthrie

1 comment:

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